- Adversarial culture’ or ‘culture of adversarialism’ refers to the psycho-cultural predisposition to see the world in terms of conflict and competition, along with socio-structural configurations based on win-lose or zero-sum relations.
- ‘Culture of Peace’ is the opposite of adversarialism is a society of mutualism, cooperation and mutual aid. sharing values, attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles based on non-violence and the respect for fundamental rights and freedoms, on understanding, tolerance and solidarity, on co-participation and the free circulation of information, and on full involvement and strengthening of women, the creation of which is a vast project of multidimensional, world-wide scope
The main purpose of Peter's study is to let us know that violence and competition are no more natural to human being. We have this cognition because we were strongly influenced by the culture within which we were raised. But there is another choice: "culture of peace" that show us mutualism and cooperation, and to build a society of justice, unity and peace.
“survival of the fittest”
- derived from the Darwin’s work, “The Origin of the Species” , theory of “natural selection”, according to which individuals that adapted better to changes in their environment were more likely to survive and reproduce than others. But It is erroneous to assume that Darwin believed in competition and conflict as necessary to the human condition. Rather, he observed that true the human capacity resided in our ability to carry out complex tasks in cooperation and feel empathy with others. Darwin himself fully appreciated the role of cooperation in nature.
- This term is utilized to convince the hapless masses that everything is as it should be.]
Are we inherently aggressive and violent?
- instinct is scientifically defined as a repetitive pattern of specific and often complex behaviors that are common to an entire species, automatic, irresistible, unalterable, and do not depend on learning. None of the human behaviors that scientists have studied thus far meet this definition, so it is currently believed that human beings are entirely devoid of instincts.
- The attitudes of aggression, competition and greed, so common in today’s society, do not fulfill any of these definitions
- while caring, cooperation and generosity are the ones that best meet our collective needs on the long run
- Grossman published the results of a study that showed that most soldiers refuse to kill and never actually shoot their rifles in combat.
- Most recruits come to military training with the peaceful sentiments that are common to the masses of humanity, and must be psychologically 'rewired’ through conditioning and training, to exchange sensible rationality for blind obedience, human solidarity for nationalistic fanaticism, and reflexive prudence for suicidal fervor.3 Grossman describes in some detail the sophisticated modern methods of brainwashing and desensitization that are used to overcome the natural resistance to kill, in order to raise up a new generation of soldiers
- It is true that animal and human brains have a ‘limbic center’ that makes it possible for us to experience fear and anger, among other feelings that are important for our survival. However, a normal person’s brain does not generate these emotions on its own, but rather in response to external stimuli and their interpretation as threats.
- Some studies have taken the opposite tack and suggested that human beings have a ‘peaceful brain’.
- It is scientifically incorrect to say that humans have a ‘violent brain’. While we do have the neural apparatus to act violently, it is not automatically activated by internal or external stimuli.
Implications of Seeing Ourselves as Spiritual Beings
Innate Depravity- consequences
- believing the human spirit to be ‘bad’ by nature can also lead to certain undesirable outcomes. For example, many efforts to improve the human condition focus more on attacking human faults than on cultivating our potential goodness.
- a belief in man’s inherent wickedness can often be used as an excuse to not make an effort to improve, under the pretext that we are ‘only human’, or that “the devil made me do it”.
- does not favor the development of a positive self-image, so important to strengthening a healthy personality
- These notions lead to accepting that we all have the potential to behave morally, in ways that benefit all
- promote a positive self-image, which favors the development of a healthy character.
- tend to enhance the efficacy of efforts to improve the human condition, as they center efforts more on cultivating virtues than on attacking defects.
- We said before that the concepts of innate evil and inherent goodness in humankind sometimes do not motivate us to cultivate virtues intentionally, because in response to the former we attack what is bad and under the latter we wait for goodness to blossom naturally.